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There are numerous historic and recent examples where bioweapons have been used, threatened for use, or developed for use against livestock (for agro-terror, agro-warfare, or agro-crimes depending on the intent). Parts of the world are at risk from agro-terrorism owing to their vulnerability (susceptible human and animal populations with weaknesses in capacity to respond to a disease outbreak); threats from criminal and terrorist groups and civil unrest; and the potential consequences of a deliberate release of a pathogen into an animal population (impacts on animal health, food security, public health, civil stability, livelihoods, and economies). Even the threat of an agro-terror or bio-terror attack can be enough to create panic and civil unrest. Since most pathogens that have been used or considered for use as bioweapons (against humans, animals, or both) have been animal pathogens (including zoonotic agents), the veterinary services, working closely with their law enforcement colleagues, have an important role to play in threat reduction. With greater numbers and more rapid movements of animals and people than ever before, infectious diseases can be disseminated more easily across larger areas and uncontained disease events in one region can soon become international crises.